The Wailing Wailers


The Wailing Wailers is the debut album by The Wailers published on the Studio One label. Originally released in very late 1965 and compiled from various recordings made over the years 1963-1965, it compiles what Clement Coxsone Dodd considered the best Wailers recordings from this period. It is not a studio album in the conventional sense but was the first full length LP released of the band’s work. The album has remained in print since its release, but after the first release (which has a different cover) each release of the album was newly overdubbed to fit with musical trends of the time. The album has never been released on CD with the original tracklisting or cover but all tracks (with and without overdubs) are available across various compilations released by Heartbeat Records in the 1990s and 2000s. The front cover’s band photo was also an inspiration for Walt Jabsco, the unofficial logo for 2 Tone Records, the drawing was created by Jerry Dammers and Horace Panter and is based on Peter Tosh (right).

Bob Marley & The Wailers were a Jamaican reggae, ska and rocksteady band formed by Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer in 1963. Additional members were Junior Braithwaite, Beverley Kelso, Cherry Smith and Aston and Carlton Barrett. The band came to an end with the death of Bob Marley in 1981.

They were known variously as The Teenagers, The Wailing Rudeboys, The Wailing Wailers and finally The Wailers. By 1966 Braithwaite, Kelso and Smith had left the band, which then consisted of the trio Livingston, Marley and Tosh (Neville Livingston being the birth name of Bunny Wailer).

Some of The Wailers most notable songs were recorded with Lee “Scratch” Perry and his studio band The Upsetters. During the early 1970s The Upsetters members Aston “Family Man” Barrett and his brother Carlton (Carlie) Barrett,[1] formed the Wailers Band, providing instrumental backing for The Wailers.

The Wailers recorded groundbreaking reggae songs such as “Simmer Down”, “Trenchtown Rock”, “Nice Time”, “War”, “Stir It Up” and “Get Up, Stand Up”.
The Wailers disbanded in 1974 due to Tosh and Livingston’s refusal to tour. Bob Marley formed Bob Marley & The Wailers with Bob Marley himself as guitarist, songwriter and main singer, the Wailers Band as the backing band, and the I Threes as backup vocalists. The Wailers Band included the brothers Carlton Barrett and “Family Man” Barrett on drums and bass respectively, Junior Marvin and Al Anderson playing lead guitar, Tyrone Downie and Earl “Wya” Lindo playing keyboard, and Alvin “Seeco” Patterson playing percussion. The I Threes, consisted of Bob Marley’s wife Rita Marley, Judy Mowatt and Marcia Griffiths.
Bob Marley & The Wailers, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer all enjoyed considerable success as reggae music continued to gain popularity during the 1970s and 1980s.
Several of the group’s members have died subsequent to Marley’s death in 1981: Carlton Barrett and Tosh in 1987, Braithwaite in 1999, and Smith in 2008.[2] Bunny Wailer and Beverley Kelso are the only surviving members of the group’s original line-up.

Prince Buster

Cecil Bustamente Campbell, O.D. (born 28 May 1938), better known as Prince Buster, and also known by his Muslim name Muhammed Yusef Ali, is a musician from Kingston, Jamaica. He is regarded as one of the most important figures in the history of ska and rocksteady music. The records he made on the Blue Beat label in the 1960s inspired many reggae and ska artists.
Contents [hide]
1 Biography
1.1 Early life
1.2 Artistic and producing career
1.3 Post-recording life
2 Album discography
3 UK hit singles
4 References
[edit]Biography

[edit]Early life
Campbell began his professional career as a singer in 1956; performing in Kingston nightclubs. He formed a succession of bands with several of his friends, none of which were successful.
Campbell’s music career reached maturity with the growth of the sound system. Across Jamaica, music promoters drove vans filled with stereo equipment to stage mobile parties. The operators of the sound system would play the popular R&B dance records of the day and often they would have a vocalist called a toaster call out the dancers’ names, chant in rhythm, and make light-hearted boasts. Deejay “toasting” was one of the precursors to the style of vocal delivery that eventually evolved into rap.
Eventually, Campbell was introduced to Clement Dodd, a musically-inclined businessman who operated one of Kingston’s most popular sound systems. Interestingly, Campbell was not hired as a musician but as security; because of rivalries between fans devoted to a particular sound system, the parties sometimes could become quite rough, and Campbell had been a skillful amateur boxer as a teenager. It was in this line of work that he earned the nickname “The Prince”, which along with his boyhood moniker “Buster” (from his middle name Bustamente), formed the name under which he would later become famous.
[edit]Artistic and producing career
In 1960, Buster produced a record for the Folkes Brothers for the Wild Bells label, “Oh Carolina”, under his nickname. Buster dubbed himself ‘The Voice of the People’, and gave a voice to those people with “Oh Carolina”, which expressed black Jamaicans through a commercially successful medium.[1] This record was Jamaica’s first to involve an element of African music – the drumming in the record was provided by Count Ossie, the lead nyabinghi drummer from the rastafarian camp, Camp David, in the hills above Kingston. It was an instant hit in Jamaica, and Buster’s early records, which were released in the UK by Blue Beat Records, contributed greatly to the developing sound of ska. Buster was soon recording his own compositions as well as producing records for others.
From 1963 to the end of the decade, Buster wrote and produced hundreds of songs for Blue Beat. Soon after his initial success, Buster was drawing international attention. He toured Britain extensively during this period, playing to sellout crowds, and appeared on commercial TV broadcaster Rediffusion London’s Friday early-evening pop show Ready, Steady, Go! in 1964. While in England, Buster met World Heavyweight Champion boxer Muhammad Ali, a meeting that resulted in Buster joining the Nation of Islam, as well as Ali being mentioned in the song “Earthquake on Orange Street”,[2][3] which was subsequently referenced by the UK group Madness, who took their name from one of his songs, in their first single “The Prince”. He went on to be a popular as a recorded and touring artist in Europe, and though none of his singles charted as highly in the United States, he went on a successful American tour in 1967 to support the little-known RCA Victor LP releaseThe Ten Commandments (From Man To Woman). Today, the album (catalog LSP-3792) is a highly-sought-after rarity among collectors of ska and foundation reggae.
Prince Buster had two hit singles in the UK: first, “Al Capone” (#18, 1967), and much later, with an updated version of “Whine And Grine”, which was used on a television advertisement (#21, 1998).[4] In 1972 Buster gained notoriety for the title track of his album Big Five, a raunched-up re-write of Brook Benton’s “Rainy Night in Georgia” with explicit references to sex and drugs.
Besides being a pioneering musician, Buster, like Clement Dodd, was also very interested in business. He started a record shop in Kingston in the early 1960s which is still owned and operated by his family today. Later he founded a jukebox company. He also started the Prince Buster Records label, at first as an attempt to keep the Melodisc label viable,[5] but today is used to reissue his music.
[edit]Post-recording life

This biographical section of an article needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (July 2011)
The ska sound and rhythms were undergoing a change by the late 1960s, musicians were slowing the beat and introducing more subtle rhythmic pulses that audiences found less frantic and therefore easier to dance too. This new music was eventually called rocksteady, slower than ska and more influenced by gospel and soul. Rocksteady itself would eventually be replaced by reggae. In addition to the musical influence that ska and rocksteady exerted, many reggae lyrics expressed an Afrocentric, Marcus Garvey-inspired worldview, which had been present in some of Prince Buster’s songs. Bob Marley, Toots Hibbert, and other reggae stars have acknowledged their debt. Buster also made a cameo appearance in the acclaimed international hit movie, The Harder They Come. However, reggae’s Rastafarian orientation led the Muslim Prince to keep an arms distance away from the new music. He turned toward more traditional tourist-based business ventures instead and gracefully exited the Jamaican music scene.
By the late 1970s, Buster was in serious financial trouble. His business ventures were all posting losses or low profits, and the loans he had taken out to start them were catching up. Fortunately for him, ska was experiencing a revival in the United Kingdom, and the most prominent bands of the revival drew from his material. In 1979, the band Madness released their first record, a tribute to Buster called “The Prince”, which urged ska fans to remember “the man who set the beat”. The b-side to this record was a cover of the Prince Buster song “Madness” from which they took their name. Their second single was a cover of Buster’s “One Step Beyond” which reached the Top 10. On their first album, The Specials covered “Too Hot” and drew heavily on “Judge Dread” in the song “Stupid Marriage”, and “Al Capone” in the song “Gangsters”. The Specials also included a cover of Buster’s version of “Enjoy Yourself” on their second album. Not to be outdone, the The Beat included covers of the Buster originals “Rough Rider” and “Whine & Grine” on its first album. Interest in Buster soared during this time; he received royalties when his songs were covered by 2-Tone bands, and his old records were re-issued and sold well. Buster’s songs continued to be popular sources for ska bands in the U.S., an example being The Toasters covering “Hard Man Fe Dead” in 1996. In 1989, Prince Buster recorded a 12″ single with London based ska and blues band, The Trojans, which was released on Gaz’s Rockin’ Records in the UK. “Stack O Lee” was a limited edition and it sold out within weeks.
Prince Buster now lives in Miami, Florida. He has performed at several shows over the past few years, including: the 2002 Legends Of Ska festival in Toronto; Dedham, Massachusetts in 2002; the 2006 Boss Sounds Reggae Festival in Newcastle upon Tyne, the 40th Montreux Jazz Festival in Switzerland with the Delroy Williams Junction Band, and 2007’s Rhythm Festival. During the last day of the 2008 Notting Hill Carnival, Prince Buster made an appearance on the Gaz’s Rockin’ Blues stage, alongside The Trojans.
Prince Buster was due to make a rare live appearance in London on September 5, 2009 at Camden Centre, but it was cancelled two weeks beforehand, with ticket holders being informed by e-mail.

The Skatalites

Reggae/ska band

The Skatalites. © David Corio, MICHAEL OCHS ARCHIVES/Venice, CA

The Skatalites. © David Corio, MICHAEL OCHS ARCHIVES/Venice, CA

Although many people today would associate ska with bands like The Specials, The English Beat, and Crawdaddy, it was actually The Skatalites, formed in 1963, that pioneered this musical sound. Lasting only 14 months after their original inception, this ground-breaking band has made some major comebacks. In 1984 they performed at The Reggae Sunsplash Festival in London and released the album Return of the Big Guns that same year. More recently, The Skatalites have composed two more albums accompanied with live performances. The 1990s marked the group’s fourth decade together, during which they have gained wide-spread popularity since their reunion. In an effort to meet the demand for their colorful, electrifying shows, The Skatalites continue to tour year round.

“When I came back to Jamaica in 1962, there was this tune there, ‘Schooling the Duke.’ lt was tearing down the airwaves,” recalled original Skatalites leader Tommy McCook in a 1984 interview with David Rodigan of Capital Radio London. He was impressed by the jazzy sounds of Johnny “Dizzy” Moore and Don Drummond, who both played on the tune. A jazz musician himself, McCook was peforming one night when he was approached by Moore and Drummond and asked to record with them. McCook initially refused but eventually joined the band that would later become The Skatalites.

During the 1960s, members of the band were heavily involved with recording sessions in Jamaica. They are also credited with inspiring the Britsh two-tone movement of the late seventies and early eighties. While recording primarily for producer Clement “Sir Coxsone” Dodd of Studio One, they performed with other acts such as the Charms, the Maytals, the Wailers, and the Heptanes.

The Last Gig

Although band members continued to perform with other artists, The Skatalites officially broke up in the summer of 1965. “Our last gig was at the Runaway Bay Hotel, Police Dance,” one Skatalite remembered in the 1984 interview. However, a new band, Soul Vendors, was subsequently formed and included the likes of Johnny Moore, Jackie Mittoo, Lloyd Brevette, and Bunny Williams.

Tragedy struck the band on May 6, 1969, when one of the founding Skatalites members, Don Drummond, died mysteriously while in a mental hospital. He had been plagued with mental problems for years, which perhaps influenced his music. “He was great, the sounds he produced,” commented McCook in his interview with Rodigan. “And the way he played his horn…would make you wonder you know…it was all so moonfull, sometimes you could cry inside.” McCook also suggested that Drummond’s death involved foul play—possibly as the result of a 1965 incident in which Drummond, in an angry rage, stabbed his girlfriend Marguerita to death. She was the daughter of an alleged mafia family.

Drummond’s Music Lives On

Drummond had written some songs that were posthumously recorded, allowing his music to survive. McCook acquired the compositions after one bandmember collected them during Drummond’s arrest. For years he retained the music as a memory, but McCook eventually decided to record it. “I took the music…to the piano,” he told Rodigan, ” and started to put the changes to it and things like that and it came out nice.” Before his death, Drummond had won several jazz trombonist awards.

One of the first Jamaican acts to sign with Island records, The Skatalites reached the British Top 40 with “Guns of Navarone” in 1967. The same year the Skatalites ceased recording under that name, although most members remained involved in Jamaican music. Some pursued solo careers, while others moved to England and became session musicians. One member, Rico Rodriguez, played horns on The Specials self-titled debut album in 1979, which incidentally was produced by the legendary Elvis Costello.

“Synergy” Reunited the Band

But it was “synergy” that reunited the band, as McCook declared to Rodigan. Playing for a whole new generation, The Skatalites released Ska Voovee in 1993, which contained 11 new instrumental songs, including a tribute to Drummond called “The Don,” featuring his replacement in the band, jazz trombonist Steve Turre. Reunited band members include Tommy McCook, Ron Wilson, Lester Sterling, Lloyd Knibbs, and Lloyd Brevette. According to Geoffrey Himes of theWashington Post, “The two Lloyds once again serve up the push-and-pull rhythms—with their emphasis on the off-beat—that first defined ska as something different from North American R&B and set the stage for reggae.” This “off-beat” sound has influenced the music of many modern artists, who have sampled Skatalites rhythms to blend with their own.

Although The Skatalites defined the ska sound in the 1960s, most of the original members began their careers as jazz musicians, and with the 1994 release of Hi-Bop Ska, the band seems to have come full circle. The founding members “at the core of this reformed ensemble reaffirm their jazz roots in vibrant style here,” opined Down Beat‘s Larry Birnbaum. “New compositions blend easily with classics like ‘Guns of Navarone’ and ‘Man in the Street.'” In 1995 McCook suffered a heart attack and was forced to take a hiatus from his busy touring schedule. But this didn’t prevent him from returning to the studio to record 1996’s Greetings from Skamania. A biography released by Shanachie Entertainment asserted that the result of this effort is “a lava-hot album that exemplifies the best the Skatalites have to offer. Pounding ska beats and blistering jazz solos blend seamlessly together to create an album that feels simultaneously cutting-edge fresh and tempered-steel classic. Greetings from Skamania!”

For the Record .. .

Members include Roland Alphonso, tenor sax; Gladstone Anderson, keyboards; Theophilus Beckford, keyboards; Lloyd Brevette, bass; Baba Brooks, trumpet; Karl Bryan, alto sax;Drumbago, drums; Don Drummond (d. May 6, 1969), trombone; Bobby Ellis, trumpet;Raymond Harper, trumpet; Jah Jerry (b. Jerome Hines), guitar; Hugh Malcolm, drums; Tommy McCook, trumpet, tenor sax; Jackie Mittoo (d. 1988), keyboards; Johnny “Dizzy” Moore,fluegelhorn, trumpet; Lloyd Nibbs, bass, percussions; Ernest Ranglin, guitar; Rico Rodriguez,trombone; Lester Sterling, alto sax.

Group formed in 1963 in Jamaica; released Ska Authentic in 1963; disbanded 1965; reunited 1983, 1993; signed with Shanachie c. 1983; credited with inspiring the British two-tone movement of the late 1970s and early 1980s.

Addresses: Business agent—Abby Hoffer Enterprises, 223½ E. 48th St., New York, NY 10017. Fan club— PO Box 391079, Cambridge, MA 02139-1079.

Selected discography

Ska Authentic, Studio One, 1963.

Legendary Skatalites, Top Ranking, 1975.

African Roots, United Artists, 1977.

Scattered Lights, Aligator, 1984.

Ska Voovee, Shanachie, 1993.

Hi-Bop Ska, Shanachie, 1994.

Greetings from Skamania, Shanachie, 1996.

Sources

Books

Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll, edited by Jon Pareles, Rolling Stone Press/Summit Books, 1983.

Periodicals

Down Beat, June 1995.

Washington Post, March 4, 1994.

Online

The Boston Ska Home Page: http//www.dataweb.nl/~vanbreda/Skatalites.HTML.

Additional information was obtained from Shanachie Entertainment press materials, 1996.

Maria L. Munoz

The Skatalites

Before the Skatalites: 1954-1964
The founders of the Skatalites were Tommy McCook (died 1998), Rolando Alphonso (died 1998), Lloyd Brevett, Lloyd Knibb (died 2011), Lester Sterling, Don Drummond (died 1969), Jah Jerry Haynes (died 2007), Jackie Mittoo (died 1990), Johnny Moore (died 2008) and Jackie Opel (died 1970). These ten musicians started to play together from 1955, when Kingston’s recording studios started to develop. Tommy McCook was the first member of the band to record, though not for commercial release: he played with Don Hitchman’s Group in 1953. Archie Lindo asked Hitchman to play few tunes for his pioneer radio station, “ZQI”, on their new equipment. Soon after that, sound system pioneer Stanley Motta began to operate his studio, where he recorded calypso and mento that were released on 78’s. Rolando Alphonso was one of the first to record with him, probably in 1954.
Though McCook was the first in the band to record, he did not participate in the recording sessions with the other nine musicians. He left Jamaica in 1954 for a jazz gig at the Zanzibar Club in Nassau, Bahamas. He returned to Jamaica in June 1962, and began playing regular jazz sessions around Kingston.
Coxsone Dodd searched for jazz players around Kingston and was impressed by McCook’s playing. Tommy McCook heard some ska, but initially resisted Coxsone Dodd’s offers to record and to lead a studio group, because he was a committed jazzman. In 1962 Dodd released I Cover The Waterfront (Port-O-Jam) with Roland Alphonso and Don Drummond, who did the solo and brass sections. In 1963 he released Jazz Jamaica From the Workshop (Port-O-Jam/Studio One), on which McCook played for the first time since returning to Jamaica. Don Drummond has two tunes on Jazz Jamaica and McCook has one, “The Answer”.
[edit]Early years: 1964-1965
In spring 1964, The Skatalites recorded their first LP Ska Authentic at Studio One in Kingston and toured Jamaica as the creators of ska. Their producers were Coxsone Dodd, Duke Reid, Prince Buster, Vincent “King” Edwards, Justin “Phillip” Yap, Leslie Kong, Lindon Pottinger, Sonia Pottinger and Vincent “Randy” Chin. The Skatalites led sessions with top artists and worked with young talents such as Delroy Wilson, Desmond Dekker, The Wailers, Lee Perry, etc.
They played their first show on 27 June at the Hi-Hat club, on Water Lane in Rae Town, which was owned and operated by Orville “Billy” Farnum. Coxsone Dodd helped initially: “At the formation of the band, I supplied the PA system, microphones and what ever it is. Also the guitar amplifier and other amplifier. I helped with transportation and I supplied storage for equipment and instruments. I was a part of promoting the first gigs and other gigs to get it off the ground, because I figured more or less, if I am recording the Skatalites, its good to get them popular out in the streets, yunno?”[citation needed]
In fall 1964, Don Drummond’s composition, “Man in the Street”, entered the Top 10 in the UK. Trombonist Drummond had at least 200 tunes to his name by 1965. On 1 January 1965, Don Drummond was jailed for the murder of his girlfriend, Anita “Marguerita” Mahfood. He was later convicted and remanded to the Bellevue Asylum.
In August 1965, The Skatalites played their last show. They broke up into two supergroups, Rolando Alphonso and the Soul Vendors and Tommy McCook and the Supersonics. In early 1967, Don Drummond’s ska adaptation of the theme to the film The Guns of Navarone entered the Top 40 of the UK Singles Chart.[2] Don Drummond died on 6 May 1969, in the Bellevue Asylum.
[edit]Reunion: 1983-1998
In June 1983, The Skatalites reformed and played Reggae Sunsplash festival in Montego Bay in July. Their show was very successful[citation needed] and the band played more concerts in Jamaica while taking offers to tour abroad. Their rehearsal sessions resulted in a clutch of new songs which were recorded in Music Mountain Studio but only released in 2007 on Motion Records (as ‘Rolling Steady: The 1983 Music Mountain Sessions’). The album included their tribute to Don Drummond, ‘Big Trombone’, with Lord Tanamo on vocals. In April 1984, The Skatalites recorded a second reunion album, The Return of The Big Guns, released on Mango Records in the U.K. On 7 July 1984, The Skatalites played to thousands at Selhurst Park during the London Sunsplash. The Skatalites played seven tunes and also backed Prince Buster on three before closing with a reprise of their theme song, “Freedom Sounds”.
Between 1985 and 1988, the core members of the Skatalites emigrated and united in the northeast of the United States. They played their first US concert at The Village Gate and began to play spotted dates in Northeast US.
In April 1989, The Skatalites supported Bunny Wailer’s Liberation Tour featuring 7 original members: Tommy McCook, Roland Alphonso, Lester Sterling, Johnny Moore, Jackie Mittoo, Lloyd Brevett, and Lloyd Knibb with special guests Dion Knibb on vocals, Devon James on guitar, and Ken Stewart on keyboards. In January 1990, The Skatalites did their first headline tour of the US with the same lineup except Jackie Mittoo and Lester Sterling. On 16 December 1990, Jackie Mittoo died in Toronto, Canada from cancer. Between 1991 and 1993, The Skatalites continued touring the US and in 1992 did their first tour of Europe.
In 1993, Skavoovee was released in the US on Shanachie Records and in Japan as McCooke’s Book. The Skavoovee tour featuring The Skatalites, Special Beat, The Selecter, and The Toasters tours the US.The Skatalites were nominated for a Grammy Award in the category of Best Reggae Album twice: In January 1996, for their 1995 Shanachie release, Hi-Bop Ska and in January 1997, for their 1996 Shanachie release, Greetings From Skamania.
In 1997, The Skatalites released Ball of Fire on Island Records with special guest Ernest Ranglin on guitar. On 5 May 1998, Tommy McCook died near his home in Lithonia, Georgia. On 17 November 1998, Rolando Alphonso died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California.
[edit]Band without McCook and Alphonso: 1999-present
On 27 March 1999, Cedric Brooks (tenor sax) joined The Skatalites and in May 2000, The Skatalites record a new album, “Bashaka”, at The Hit Factory in Miami, featuring 15 original tracks and special guest Ken Boothe on a vocal track. On 26 and 27 December 2001, The Skatalites recorded new album in Paris at Davout Studios for Melodie Records and released as From Paris with Love on 15 April 2002. In February 2002, The Skatalites began a nine month World Tour, visiting USA, Europe, Mexico, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Russia and Japan.
In April 2003, The Skatalites returned to the studio with Toots Hibbert to record a contribution to his new album, True Love. They recorded “Never Grow Old” with Terry Hall and U-Roy. The album subsequently won a Grammy in 2004. In March 2004, The Skatalites announced the beginning of their 40th Anniversary tour including Colombia, Greece and Singapore, in addition to the usual global stops. Vin Gordon and Karl Bryan joined the band.
In 2005, original member Lloyd Brevet left the band, toured briefly leading his own band, and then retired to Jamaica. In April of that year, the Skatalites started a new world tour with their new bass player Val Douglas, whose A-Team band was the primary backing band for Reggae Sunsplash Tours through the 1980s and 1990s. In October 2005, The Skatalites released The Skatalites in Orbit, Vol.1 recorded live in Buenos Aires, recorded during concerts on 23 and 24 September 2005.
In March 2006, The Skatalites played at La Bal De La Rose for Caroline, Princess of Hanover, along with Jimmy Cliff, The Wailers and Alpha Blondy. This show started the 2006 Global Orbit Tour reaching Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina. In April 2006, Skatalites recorded 11 new tunes and one cover in Byron Bay, Australia at the 301 Studios. The new release “On The Right Track” is forthcoming.
In May 2007, On The Right Track was released worldwide by AIM International, Australia. In September 2007, The Skatalites contributed the track “Be My Guest”, with Ben Harper on vocals, for the Fats Domino tribute CD Goin’ Home: A Tribute to Fats Domino featuring numerous artists. This CD raised funds for all the musicians affected by Hurricane Katrina.
On the 12th of May, 2011, founding member and drummer Lloyd Knibb died of liver cancer at age 80.[3]